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Reference Manual (Understanding the Internals)


The easy to use ADALM2000 active learning module (M2K) helps introduce electrical engineering students and hobbyists to the fundamentals of signals and systems. Designed for students at all levels and from all backgrounds, the module can be used for both instructor-led and self-directed learning to help students develop a foundation in exploring signals and systems into the tens of MHz that they can build on as they pursue science, technology, or engineering degrees, without the cost and bulk associated with traditional lab gear.

With 12-bit ADCs and DACs running at 100 MSPS, the ADALM2000 brings the power of high performance lab equipment to the palm of your hand. When coupled with Analog Devices' Scopy graphical application software running on a computer, provides the user with the following high performance instrumentation:

  • Two-channel oscilloscope with differential inputs
  • Two-channel arbitrary function generator
  • 16-channel digital logic analyzer (3.3V CMOS and 1.8V or 5V tolerant, 100MS/s)
  • 16-channel pattern generator (3.3V CMOS, 100MS/s)
  • 16-channel virtual digital I/O
  • Two input/output digital trigger signals for linking multiple instruments (3.3V CMOS)
  • Two-channel voltmeter (AC, DC, ±20V)
  • Network analyzer – Bode, Nyquist, Nichols transfer diagrams of a circuit. Range: 1Hz to 10MHz
  • Spectrum Analyzer – power spectrum and spectral measurements (noise floor, SFDR, SNR, THD, etc.)
  • Digital Bus Analyzers (SPI, I²C, UART, Parallel)
  • Two programmable power supplies (0…+5V , 0…-5V)

Small enough to fit in a shirt pocket, the M2k is completely self-contained and entirely USB powered with the default firmware. Because M2K is enabled by libiio drivers, it supports OS X® , Windows®, and Linux®, which allows students to learn and explore on a variety of host platforms.

Figure 1. ADALM2000

Figure 2. ADALM2000 Pinout

The ADALM2000 board is based on the Xilinx Zynq All Programmable SoC (AP SoC) which integrates the software programmability of an ARM-based processor with the hardware programmability of an FPGA, enabling hardware acceleration while integrating CPU, DSP, ASSP, and mixed signal functionality into a single device. Such devices feature a single-core ARM Cortex™-A9 processor mated with 28nm Artix®-7 based programmable logic, outfitted with commonly used hardened peripherals (USB, SPI, etc.)


The high-level block diagram of ADALM2000 is presented in Figure 3. The software application Scopy will automatically detect the board and the communicate with it via USB 2.0, while the functional blocks of ADALM2000 can be controlled via libiio interface, including parameters configuration, acquiring, storing and transferring data.

Block Diagram

Figure 3. ADALM2000 block diagram

The block diagram is divided in the following blocks:

  • Analog Inputs
    • Input Divider and Gain Control (short info required…)
    • Buffer (short info required…)
    • Driver (short info required…)
    • Scope Reference and Offset (short info required…)
    • ADC (short info required…)
  • Waveform Generator
    • DAC (short info required…)
    • I/V - Current to voltage converters (short info required…)
    • Output stages (short info required…)
  • Clock and Oscillator (short info required…)
  • Digital I/O (short info required…)
  • Power Supplies (short info required…)
  • USB Controller (short info required…)
  • Memory (short info required…)

Analog Inputs

(Schematic shots + formulas + short description)

Waveform Generator

(Schematic shots + formulas + short description)

Digital IO

Figure. Digital I/O

Figure above shows the schematic block corresponding to one half of the Digital IO pins (DIO_0 - DIO_7).

P1 is the end user signal connector. The other digital half is symmetrical.

IO pins are LVCMOS3V3 compatible.

Schottky Diodes (D11-D19) provide ESD protection for large currents determined by overvoltage.

PTC (RT10-18) are used on the digital lines to assure thermal protection to shortcuts.

Bandwidth of the input pins is limited by the parasitical capacitance of the Schottky Diodes and PTC.

Note: When connecting the digital pins to any external device and the ADALM2000 is powered off, the ESD protection diodes on the ADALM2000 will turn on, pulling any signals to ground. Any high logic level of the external signal will be reduced to ~ 0.6V.

Power Supplies

(Schematic shots + formulas + short description)

USB Controller

  • USB which for your host connectivity (used to stream data).
    • USB 2 (480 Mbits/seconds)
    • libiio USB device for communicating to the device
    • Network device
      • Remote Network Driver Interface Specification (RNDIS)
      • This will enumerate with the IP address by default.
    • USB serial device
      • provides access to the Linux console on the M2K device via USB Communication Device Class Abstract Control Model (USB CDC ACM) specification
    • Mass Storage Device : this will appear to the host as a disk, where you can find links for software uploads, and the serial number of the device.


  • Micron DDR3L
  • Micron Serial Flash
    • 32 Mbyte
    • Quad I/O provides throughput up to 54 MBps
    • Minimum 100,000 ERASE cycles (don't update the firmware more times than this)



  • Completely self powered from USB
  • Optional power connector


Analog Inputs

  • 2 channels
  • differential channel type
  • 12-bit resolution
  • 100 MS/s sample rate
  • Scope scales: 1mV to 10V/div
  • ±25V (±50V differential) input range
  • 64k samples buffer size/channel
  • Trigger: rising/falling edge, high/low, hysteresis
  • Sampling modes: average, decimate, min/max
  • FFTs, XY plots and histrogram
  • Math channels with complex functions
  • Cursors with advanced data measurements
  • Captured data files can be exported in standard formats (.csv, .txt)

Signal Generator

  • 2 channels
  • Single ended channel type
  • 12-bit resolution
  • Sample rate: 75 MS/s
  • AC amplitude (max): ±5 V
  • DC Offset (max): ±5 V
  • Slew rate (10V step): 400V/µs
  • 64k samples buffer size/channel
  • Sine, Square, Triangle, Trapezoidal, Rising/Falling Ramp Sawtooth waveforms
  • Noise Waveforms (Uniform, Gaussian, Laplacian, Impulse)
  • Custom waveforms using standard tools (e.g. Excel)

Pattern Generator

  • 16 channels
  • Sample rate: 100 MS/s
  • Custom pattern buffer/channel: up to 500K samples
  • Output logic standard: LVCMOS (3.3V)
  • Output type/channel: Push-Pull(PP)/Open-Drain(OD)
  • Import patterns using standard file formats (.csv, .txt)
  • Customized visualization for signals and buses

Logic Analyzer

  • Channels: 16
  • Sample rate (real time): 100 MS/s
  • 500K samples buffer size/channel
  • Input logic: LVCMOS (3.3V, up to 5V)
  • Trigger options: auto/normal with multiple trigger logic options
  • External trigger available
  • Decoders for multiple communication protocols (SPI, I2C, UART, Parallel, etc.)
  • Export data using standard formats (.csv, .txt)

Digital I/O

  • Channels: 16 (shared)
  • Input logic: LVCMOS (3.3V, 5V tolerant)
  • Output logic standard: LVCMOS (3.3V)
  • Virtual I/O devices (switches & displays)
  • Individual/Grouped Customized visualization of channels

Power Supplies

  • 1 Positive output
  • 1 Negative output
  • Voltage range: 0.5V…5V and -0.5V…-5V
  • Independent/Tracking modes for the 2 power supplies

Network Analyzer

  • Shared with following instruments: Oscilloscope, Signal Generator
  • Frequency sweep range: 1Hz to 30MHz
  • Samples count: 10 → 1000
  • Settable input amplitude and offset
  • Signal recorded via analog input at each frequency
  • Available diagrams: Bode, Nichols, or Nyquist
  • Export data using standard formats (.csv, .txt)


  • Channels (shared with scope): 2
  • Channel type: differential
  • Measurements: DC and AC
  • Resolution: 12-bit
  • Input range: ±25V (±50V div)
  • Peak Hold
  • History of recorded values
  • Option for Data logging

Spectrum Analyzer

  • 2 channels shared with Oscilloscope
  • Power spectrum algorithms: FFT
  • Frequency range modes: center/span, start/stop
  • Frequency scale: linear
  • Vertical axis options: voltage-peak, VRMS, dBV, dBu, dBFS
  • Window types: flat top, rectangular, triangular, hamming, hann, blackman-harris, kaiser
  • 5 customizable markers
  • Data file export using standard formats (.csv, .txt)

Other Features

  • USB power option; all needed cables included.
  • External supply option: 5V, 2.5A
  • Data transfer via high-speed USB 2.0 interface
  • Trigger in allows multiple instruments to be linked
  • Individual configuration of instruments
  • Export/import instruments configuration

Other Resources

/srv/ · Last modified: 22 Feb 2020 17:58 by mthoren_adi