This version (19 Nov 2021 15:36) was approved by Doug Mercer.The Previously approved version (07 Nov 2021 17:44) is available.Diff

Electronics I and Electronics II Based Lab Activity Material

The laboratory activities provided on this wiki are considered open source and available for free use in non-commercial educational and academic settings. The only requirement is that they continue to retain the attribution to Analog Devices Inc. Supplying them on the ADI wiki allows registered users to contribute to the materials posted here improving the content and keeping them up to date.

Lab Preparation

Circuit Simulation

Basic information and material on circuit simulation, including tool links and usage information. Get Up and Running with LTspice.

Most of the labs are populated with LTspice resource files which contain the schematics of the circuits discussed at a specific topic. A file containing the ADALM2000 connections for the schematics can be found here: m2k_conn_ltspice.

Course ADALM1000 (M1K) ADALM2000 (M2K)
Electronics I schematic files schematic files
Electronics II schematic files schematic files

Lab Hardware and Software

These labs can be performed using the ADALM1000 (M1K) entry level Active Learning Module or the ADALM2000 (M2K) more advanced level Active Learning Module. This document outlines how labs might be altered for use with either M1K or M2K.

ADALM1000 (M1K) ADALM2000 (M2K)
PC Software ALICE Scopy

The labs are generally written to be performed using just the components provided in the Analog Parts Kit, ADALP2000, supplied through ADI and our authorized distribution channels, however additional devices are sometimes needed.

General Lab materials

Lab Activities and Exercises

Course Function ADALM1000 (M1K) ADALM2000 (M2K)
Electronics IAmplifiersBasic OP Amp Configurations
Op-Amp Open-Loop Gain
Op-Amp Gain Bandwidth Product
The Voltage Comparator
Simple Op Amps
Op Amp as Comparator
Op Amp Settling Time
Measuring Loop Gain
Differential pair triangle to sine converter
Electronics IPN JunctionThe voltage dependent capacitance of the PN junctionVoltage dependent capacitance of the PN junction
Electronics IDiodesPN Diode I/V curves
Zener Diode I/V curves
Diode Rectifiers
Precision Rectifiers, Absolute value circuits
BJT as a diode
MOS as a diode
PN Diode I/V curves
Zener diode regulator
BJT as a diode
MOS as a diode
Differential Temperature Sensor using Diodes
Electronics IBipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)BJT Device I/V curves
BJT as a switch
Common Emitter Amplifier
Frequency Response of CE amplifier
Common Base Amplifier
Folded Cascode Amplifier
BJT Current Mirror
BJT Zero Gain Amplifier
BJT Stabilized current source
BJT Emitter Follower
Phase Splitter Amplifier
BJT Differential Pair
Transresistance input stage
Multi Stage Amplifier
Making a full Amplifier from circuit blocks
Output Stages
BJT Device I/V curves
Common emitter amplifier
Amplifier Frequency Response
CE amplifier loop gain
BJT Current Mirror
BJT Zero gain amplifier
BJT Stabilized current source
Floating (two terminal) Current Source / Sink
BJT Emitter follower
BJT Differential Pair
Transresistance input stage
Making a full Amplifier from circuit blocks
Output Stages
Electronics IMetal Oxide Transistors (MOS)MOS Device I/V curves
MOS as a switch
Common Source Amplifier
Common Gate Amplifier
MOS Current Mirror
MOS Zero Gain Amplifier
MOS Stabilized current source
MOS Source Follower
MOS Differential Pair
MOS Device I/V curves
Common source amplifier
MOS Current Mirror
MOS Zero gain amplifier
MOS Stabilized current source
MOS source follower
MOS Differential Pair
Electronics IICMOSCMOS Amplifier
CMOS Auto Zero Amplifer
Two stage CMOS OTA
CMOS Analog Switches
CMOS Amplifier (with chopping / auto zero)
CMOS Analog Switches
Electronics IIPulse Width Modulation (PWM)Pulse Width Modulator
Electronics IITriggeringAdjustable External Triggering Circuit
Electronics IIVoltage ReferenceRegulated Voltage Reference
Shunt Voltage Regulator
Regulated Voltage Reference
Shunt voltage regulator
Electronics IIDigital to Analog ConvertersDigital to Analog Conversion
Semi-digital FIR Filter
Digital to Analog
Electronics IIAnalog to Digital ConvertersThe Track Hold Amplifier
Successive Approximation (SAR) ADC
Delta – Sigma Modulator
Analog to Digital
Delta – Sigma Modulator
Electronics IIOscillatorsCMOS LC Oscillator
Light Controlled RC Oscillator
Voltage Controlled RC Oscillator
CMOS LC Oscillator
Light Controlled RC Oscillator
Wien Bridge Oscillator
Electronics IIRectifiersSilicon Controlled Rectifiers
Active Rectifiers
Silicon Controlled Rectifiers
Active Rectifiers
Electronics IIOptocouplersOptocouplers (analog isolation amplifier)Optocouplers (analog isolation amplifier)
Electronics IISensor CircuitsLED as light sensor
Photo Voltaic Solar Cells
Electret microphone preamplifier
Measuring Loudspeaker Impedance Profile
Heart Rate Monitor Circuit
LED as light sensor
Characteristics of Photovoltaic Solar Cells
Negative voltage reference from positive reference
Measuring a Loudspeaker Impedance Profile
Heartbeat Measurement Circuit
Temperature Control using Window Comparator

General background Information.

The assumption is made that the reader has some familiarity with the ADALM2000 Lab hardware and Scopy software system before starting these lab activities. It is also assumed that for the data presented here, the measurement data waveforms from the lab hardware were saved to disk and manipulated and plotted in Microsoft Excel.

First, here are a few words about components that might be suitable for use in these lab experiments. Transistors that can be used are general purpose NPN types like 2SC1815 and the 2SA1015 PNP complement. Similar type devices can be used such as the popular 2N3904 NPN and 2N3906 PNP devices which are also considered comparable complements of each other. A supply of various diodes, resistors, capacitors and inductors should also be available. Another potential source of transistors for use in these lab exercises are transistor arrays such as the LM3045 / LM3046 / LM3086 NPN Arrays from National Semiconductor. Similar NPN arrays from Intersil are, CA3045 / CA3046 / CA3083. Arrays of two or four 2N2222, 2N3904, 2N3906 and other types are available from some manufacturers like Fairchild and ON Semiconductor. A readily available enhancement mode NMOS transistor is the 2N7000. Advanced Linear Devices Inc. offers dual and quad N and P channel MOS arrays (ALD1106 and ALD1107) as well. The CD4007C CMOS logic package consists of three complementary pairs of N and P-channel enhancement mode MOS transistors. The N and P type pairs share either a common gate or common drain terminal which limits their use as six individual devices but these devices can still be useful for Lab experiments.

Remember, not all transistors share the same terminal designations, or pinouts, even if they share the same physical appearance. The order of some types is CBE (base is center lead) and BCE (collector is center lead) for others. This is very important when you connect the transistors together and to other components. Be careful to check the manufacturer's specifications (component datasheet). These can be easily found on various websites. Double-checking pin identities with a multi-meter's “diode check” function is highly recommended.

Extra stuff:

Learning to mathematically analyze circuits requires much study and practice. Typically, students practice by working through lots of sample problems and checking their answers against those provided by the textbook or the instructor. While this is good, there is a much better way. You will learn much more by actually building and analyzing real circuits, letting your test equipment provide the “answers” instead of a book or another person. For successful circuit-building exercises, follow these steps:

  1. Carefully measure and record all component values prior to circuit construction, choosing resistor values high enough to make damage to any active components unlikely.
  2. Draw the schematic diagram for the circuit to be analyzed. Or perhaps print out the schematics shown in these lab activities.
  3. Carefully build this circuit on your breadboard.
  4. Before applying power to your circuit check the accuracy of the circuit's construction, following each wire to each connection point, and verifying these elements one-by-one on the diagram.
  5. Mathematically analyze the circuit, solving for all voltage and current values.
  6. Carefully measure all voltages and currents, to verify the accuracy of your analysis.
  7. If there are any substantial errors (greater than a few percent), carefully check your circuit's construction against the diagram, then carefully re-calculate the values and re-measure.

One way you can save time and reduce the possibility of error is to begin with a very simple circuit and incrementally add components to increase its complexity after each analysis, rather than building a whole new circuit for each practice activity. Another time-saving technique is to re-use the same components in a variety of different circuit configurations. This way, you won't have to measure any component's value more than once.

Note about diodes and bandgap conventions:

The common convention is that a typical silicon BJT base–emitter diode drop, VBE, is 0.65V and a standard general purpose silicon diode drop is 0.6V. Other conventions use 0.6V or 0.7V for one or both. These are highly dependent on the manufacturing process used and the physical size of the components. The results you measure in the laboratory will most likely be between these values. Diodes and BJTs implemented on the same integrated circuit (i.e., on the same silicon die) may have equivalent characteristics. That is, the diodes and transistors will be more closely matched. Matched components are convenient to use in many circuit designs. We use discrete elements in most of these activities, and so it is not possible to match components unless they are all fabricated on the same silicon die. In the laboratory, a diode-connected transistor, with its base shorted to its collector may match the base–emitter characteristics of another transistor of the same type better than a simple diode.

Diode drops are strongly temperature dependent. Room-temperature transistors (~27ºC or 300ºK) have base–emitter drops around 0.65V, but as the temperature of the transistors increases, VBE drops near 0.5V. So temperature matching is just as important as component matching. Internal temperature compensation in bandgap voltage references lets them provide a temperature-independent voltage reference. Their output reference of ∼1.22V is the extrapolated VBE at absolute zero (i.e., 0ºK or −273.15ºC). It is not a coincidence that the Silicon bandgap (i.e., the energy separating valence and conduction electron bands) is ∼1.22 eV.

Temperature dependence and manufacturing variations (and the Early effect) are always a concern.

Return to Electronics I & Electronics II Course Material Table of Contents

university/labs/electronics.txt · Last modified: 19 Nov 2021 15:35 by Doug Mercer