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AD7793 IIO Low Power Sigma-Delta ADC Linux Driver

Supported Devices

Reference Circuits

Evaluation Boards


This is a Linux industrial I/O (IIO) subsystem driver, targeting multi channel serial interface ADCs. The industrial I/O subsystem provides a unified framework for drivers for many different types of converters and sensors using a number of different physical interfaces (i2c, spi, etc). See IIO for more information.

Source Code


Source Mainlined?
git Yes


Example platform device initialization

For compile time configuration, it’s common Linux practice to keep board- and application-specific configuration out of the main driver file, instead putting it into the board support file.

For devices on custom boards, as typical of embedded and SoC-(system-on-chip) based hardware, Linux uses platform_data to point to board-specific structures describing devices and how they are connected to the SoC. This can include available ports, chip variants, preferred modes, default initialization, additional pin roles, and so on. This shrinks the board-support packages (BSPs) and minimizes board and application specific #ifdefs in drivers.

21 Oct 2010 16:10

The reference voltage may vary between boards and models. The platform_data for the device's “struct device” holds this information.

 * enum ad7793_clock_source - AD7793 clock source selection
 * @AD7793_CLK_SRC_INT: Internal 64 kHz clock, not available at the CLK pin.
 * @AD7793_CLK_SRC_INT_CO: Internal 64 kHz clock, available at the CLK pin.
 * @AD7793_CLK_SRC_EXT: Use external clock.
 * @AD7793_CLK_SRC_EXT_DIV2: Use external clock divided by 2.
enum ad7793_clock_source {
 * enum ad7793_bias_voltage - AD7793 bias voltage selection
 * @AD7793_BIAS_VOLTAGE_DISABLED: Bias voltage generator disabled
 * @AD7793_BIAS_VOLTAGE_AIN1: Bias voltage connected to AIN1(-).
 * @AD7793_BIAS_VOLTAGE_AIN2: Bias voltage connected to AIN2(-).
 * @AD7793_BIAS_VOLTAGE_AIN3: Bias voltage connected to AIN3(-).
 *	Only valid for AD7795/AD7796.
enum ad7793_bias_voltage {
 * enum ad7793_refsel - AD7793 reference voltage selection
 * @AD7793_REFSEL_REFIN1: External reference applied between REFIN1(+)
 *	and REFIN1(-).
 * @AD7793_REFSEL_REFIN2: External reference applied between REFIN2(+) and
 *	and REFIN1(-). Only valid for AD7795/AD7796.
 * @AD7793_REFSEL_INTERNAL: Internal 1.17 V reference.
enum ad7793_refsel {
	AD7793_REFSEL_REFIN1 = 0,
	AD7793_REFSEL_REFIN2 = 1,
 * enum ad7793_current_source_direction - AD7793 excitation current direction
 * @AD7793_IEXEC1_IOUT1_IEXEC2_IOUT2: Current source IEXC1 connected to pin
 *	IOUT1, current source IEXC2 connected to pin IOUT2.
 * @AD7793_IEXEC1_IOUT2_IEXEC2_IOUT1: Current source IEXC2 connected to pin
 *	IOUT1, current source IEXC1 connected to pin IOUT2.
 * @AD7793_IEXEC1_IEXEC2_IOUT1: Both current sources connected to pin IOUT1.
 *	Only valid when the current sources are set to 10 uA or 210 uA.
 * @AD7793_IEXEC1_IEXEC2_IOUT2: Both current sources connected to Pin IOUT2.
 *	Only valid when the current ources are set to 10 uA or 210 uA.
enum ad7793_current_source_direction {
	AD7793_IEXEC1_IEXEC2_IOUT1 = 2,
	AD7793_IEXEC1_IEXEC2_IOUT2 = 3,
 * enum ad7793_excitation_current - AD7793 excitation current selection
 * @AD7793_IX_DISABLED: Excitation current Disabled.
 * @AD7793_IX_10uA: Enable 10 micro-ampere excitation current.
 * @AD7793_IX_210uA: Enable 210 micro-ampere excitation current.
 * @AD7793_IX_1mA: Enable 1 milli-Ampere excitation current.
enum ad7793_excitation_current {
	AD7793_IX_DISABLED = 0,
	AD7793_IX_10uA = 1,
	AD7793_IX_210uA = 2,
	AD7793_IX_1mA = 3,
 * struct ad7793_platform_data - AD7793 platform data
 * @clock_src: Clock source selection
 * @burnout_current: If set to true the 100nA burnout current is enabled.
 * @boost_enable: Enable boost for the bias voltage generator.
 * @buffered: If set to true configure the device for buffered input mode.
 * @unipolar: If set to true sample in unipolar mode, if set to false sample in
 *		bipolar mode.
 * @refsel: Reference voltage selection
 * @bias_voltage: Bias voltage selection
 * @exitation_current: Excitation current selection
 * @current_source_direction: Excitation current direction selection
struct ad7793_platform_data {
	enum ad7793_clock_source clock_src;
	bool burnout_current;
	bool boost_enable;
	bool buffered;
	bool unipolar;
	enum ad7793_refsel refsel;
	enum ad7793_bias_voltage bias_voltage;
	enum ad7793_excitation_current exitation_current;
	enum ad7793_current_source_direction current_source_direction;
static struct ad7793_platform_data ad7793_pdata =  {
	.clock_src = AD7793_CLK_SRC_EXT,
	.unipolar = true,
	.buffered = true,
	.refsel = AD7793_REFSEL_INTERNAL,

Declaring SPI slave devices

Unlike PCI or USB devices, SPI devices are not enumerated at the hardware level. Instead, the software must know which devices are connected on each SPI bus segment, and what slave selects these devices are using. For this reason, the kernel code must instantiate SPI devices explicitly. The most common method is to declare the SPI devices by bus number.

This method is appropriate when the SPI bus is a system bus, as in many embedded systems, wherein each SPI bus has a number which is known in advance. It is thus possible to pre-declare the SPI devices that inhabit this bus. This is done with an array of struct spi_board_info, which is registered by calling spi_register_board_info().

For more information see: Documentation/spi/spi-summary.rst

21 Oct 2010 16:10

Depending on the converter IC used, you may need to set the modalias accordingly, matching your part name. It may also required to adjust max_speed_hz. Please consult the datasheet, for maximum spi clock supported by the device in question.

static struct spi_board_info board_spi_board_info[] __initdata = {
#if defined(CONFIG_AD7793) \
	|| defined(CONFIG_AD7793_MODULE)
		.modalias = "ad7793",
		.max_speed_hz = 1000000,     /* max spi clock (SCK) speed in HZ */
		.bus_num = 0,
		.chip_select = 3, /* CS, change it for your board */
		.platform_data = &ad7793_pdata, /* No spi_driver specific config */
		.mode = SPI_MODE_3,
		.irq = IRQ_PF6,
static int __init board_init(void)
	spi_register_board_info(board_spi_board_info, ARRAY_SIZE(board_spi_board_info));
	return 0;

Adding Linux driver support

Configure kernel with “make menuconfig” (alternatively use “make xconfig” or “make qconfig”)

The AD7793 Driver depends on CONFIG_SPI

Linux Kernel Configuration
    Device Drivers  --->
        <*>     Industrial I/O support --->
            --- Industrial I/O support
            Analog to digital converters  ---> 
                <*>  Analog Devices AD7793 and similar ADCs driver

Hardware configuration

Driver testing

Each and every IIO device, typically a hardware chip, has a device folder under /sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:deviceX. Where X is the IIO index of the device. Under every of these directory folders reside a set of files, depending on the characteristics and features of the hardware device in question. These files are consistently generalized and documented in the IIO ABI documentation. In order to determine which IIO deviceX corresponds to which hardware device, the user can read the name file /sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:deviceX/name. In case the sequence in which the iio device drivers are loaded/registered is constant, the numbering is constant and may be known in advance.

02 Mar 2011 15:16

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/> cd /sys/bus/iio/devices/
root:/sys/bus/iio/devices> ls
device0          trigger0

root:/sys/bus/iio/devices> cd iio:device0

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> ls -l
drwxr-xr-x    4 root     root             0 Jan  4 09:29 device0:buffer0
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 in_voltage-in_voltage_scale
-r--r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 in_voltage-in_voltage_scale_available
-r--r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 in_voltage0-in_voltage0_raw
-r--r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 in_voltage0-in_voltage0_shorted_raw
-r--r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 in_voltage1-in_voltage1_raw
-r--r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 in_voltage2-in_voltage2_raw
-r--r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 in_voltage4_supply_raw
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 in_voltage4_supply_scale
-r--r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 name
drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root             0 Jan  4 09:30 power
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 sampling_frequency
-r--r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 sampling_frequency_available
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root             0 Jan  4 09:30 subsystem -> ../../../../../bus/iio
-r--r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 in_temp0_raw
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 in_temp0_scale
drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root             0 Jan  4 09:30 trigger
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  4 09:30 uevent


Show device name

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat name

Show available sampling frequencies / update rates

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat sampling_frequency_available
470 242 123 62 50 39 33 19 17 16 12 10 8 6 4

Set sampling frequency / update rate

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat sampling_frequency
root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> echo 50 > sampling_frequency
root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat sampling_frequency

Show supply voltage

Shows the AVDD supply voltage

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat in_voltage4_supply_raw
root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat in_voltage4_supply_scale

U = in_voltage4_supply_raw * in_voltage4_supply_scale = 7817399 * 0.000418420 = 3270.95608958 mV

Show available scales for differential input channels

Lists all available scales for the differential input pairs:

ADC Input Pair Channel name
AIN1(+) - AIN1(-) in_voltage0-in_voltage0_raw
AIN2(+) - AIN2(-) in_voltage1-in_voltage1_raw
AIN3(+) - AIN3(-) in_voltage1-in_voltage1_raw
AIN1(-) - AIN1(-) in_voltage0-in_voltage0_shorted_raw

Setting these directly influences the ADC input range, by altering the GAIN amplifier.

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat in_voltage-in_voltage_scale_available
 0.000149010 0.000074500 0.000037250 0.000018620 0.000009310 0.000004650 0.000002320 0.000001160

Set scale for differential input channels

Scale to be applied to in_voltage0-in_voltage0_raw, in_voltage1-in_voltage1_raw, in_voltage2-in_voltage2_raw in order to obtain the measured voltage in millivolts. Allows the user to select one scale out of the available scales. If the written scale differs from the current scale. The driver performs full and zero offset calibration on all differential input channels.

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat in_voltage-in_voltage_scale
root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> echo 0.000074500 > in_voltage-in_voltage_scale
root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat in_voltage-in_voltage_scale

Show channel in_voltage0-in_voltage0 measurement

Raw unscaled voltage measurement

ADC Input Pair Channel name
AIN1(+) - AIN1(-) in_voltage0-in_voltage0_raw
AIN2(+) - AIN2(-) in_voltage1-in_voltage1_raw
AIN3(+) - AIN3(-) in_voltage2-in_voltage2_raw
AIN4(+) - AIN4(-) in_voltage3-in_voltage3_raw
AIN5(+) - AIN5(-) in_voltage4-in_voltage4_raw
AIN6(+) - AIN6(-) in_voltage5-in_voltage5_raw
AIN1(-) - AIN1(-) in_voltage0-in_voltage0_shorted_raw

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat in_voltage0-in_voltage0_raw

U = in_voltage0-in_voltage0_raw * in_voltage-in_voltage_scale = 6710665 * 0.000149010 = 999.95619165 mV

Trigger management

This driver only supports it's own default trigger source ad7793-dev0

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/device0> cat trigger/current_trigger 

Buffer management

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/device0/buffer> ls
enable              length

The Industrial I/O subsystem provides support for various ring buffer based data acquisition methods. Apart from device specific hardware buffer support, the user can chose between two different software ring buffer implementations. One is the IIO lock free software ring, and the other is based on Linux kfifo. Devices with buffer support feature an additional sub-folder in the /sys/bus/iio/devices/deviceX/ folder hierarchy. Called deviceX:bufferY, where Y defaults to 0, for devices with a single buffer.

Every buffer implementation features a set of files:

Get/set the number of sample sets that may be held by the buffer.

Enables/disables the buffer. This file should be written last, after length and selection of scan elements.

A single positive integer specifying the maximum number of scan elements to wait for. Poll will block until the watermark is reached. Blocking read will wait until the minimum between the requested read amount or the low water mark is available. Non-blocking read will retrieve the available samples from the buffer even if there are less samples then watermark level. This allows the application to block on poll with a timeout and read the available samples after the timeout expires and thus have a maximum delay guarantee.

A read-only value indicating the bytes of data available in the buffer. In the case of an output buffer, this indicates the amount of empty space available to write data to. In the case of an input buffer, this indicates the amount of data available for reading.

Using the high-speed interface. DMA buffers may have an alignment requirement for the buffer length. Newer versions of the kernel will report the alignment requirements associated with a device through the `length_align_bytes` property.

The scan_elements directory contains interfaces for elements that will be captured for a single triggered sample set in the buffer.

02 Mar 2011 15:16

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/device0/scan_elements> ls
in_voltage0-in_voltage0_en             in_voltage1-in_voltage1_index          in_voltage4_supply_type
in_voltage0-in_voltage0_index          in_voltage1-in_voltage1_type           temp0_en
in_voltage0-in_voltage0_shorted_en     in_voltage2-in_voltage2_en             temp0_index
in_voltage0-in_voltage0_shorted_index  in_voltage2-in_voltage2_index          temp0_type
in_voltage0-in_voltage0_shorted_type   in_voltage2-in_voltage2_type           timestamp_en
in_voltage0-in_voltage0_type           in_voltage4_supply_en                  timestamp_index
in_voltage1-in_voltage1_en             in_voltage4_supply_index               timestamp_type

in_voltageX_en / in_voltageX-voltageY_en / timestamp_en:
Scan element control for triggered data capture. Writing 1 will enable the scan element, writing 0 will disable it

in_voltageX_type / in_voltageX-voltageY_type / timestamp_type:
Description of the scan element data storage within the buffer and therefore in the form in which it is read from user-space. Form is [s|u]bits/storage-bits. s or u specifies if signed (2's complement) or unsigned. bits is the number of bits of data and storage-bits is the space (after padding) that it occupies in the buffer. Note that some devices will have additional information in the unused bits so to get a clean value, the bits value must be used to mask the buffer output value appropriately. The storage-bits value also specifies the data alignment. So u12/16 will be a unsigned 12 bit integer stored in a 16 bit location aligned to a 16 bit boundary. For other storage combinations this attribute will be extended appropriately.

in_voltageX_index / in_voltageX-voltageY_index / timestamp_index:
A single positive integer specifying the position of this scan element in the buffer. Note these are not dependent on what is enabled and may not be contiguous. Thus for user-space to establish the full layout these must be used in conjunction with all _en attributes to establish which channels are present, and the relevant _type attributes to establish the data storage format.

02 Mar 2011 15:16

More Information

resources/tools-software/linux-drivers/iio-adc/ad7793.1454004937.txt.gz · Last modified: 28 Jan 2016 19:15 by Lars-Peter Clausen