Table of Contents
BeMicro FPGA Project for ADF4002 with Nios driver
This lab presents the steps to setup an environment for using the EVAL-ADF4002SD1Z evaluation board together with the BeMicro SDK USB stick, the Nios II Embedded Development Suite (EDS) and the Micrium µC-Probe run-time monitoring tool. Below is presented a picture of the EVAL-ADF4002SD1Z Evaluation Board with the BeMicro SDK Platform.
For component evaluation and performance purposes, as opposed to quick prototyping, the user is directed to Analog Devices System Demonstration Platform (SDP). The SDP consists of a:
- a controller board, like the EVAL-SDP-CS1Z (SDP-S)
- an compatible Analog Devices SDP product evaluation board
- corresponding PC software
The EVAL-SDP-CS1Z controller board is Serial Interfaces Only, low cost, reduced functionality controller board. It has a USB to Serial Engine at its core. It connects to the PC through a USB 2.0 high speed port. The SDP-S has a single 120 pin connector and exposes SPI, I2C and GPIO interfaces to connected SDP daughter boards.
The EVAL-ADF4002SD1Z is designed to allow the user to evaluate the performance of the ADF4002 frequency synthesizer for phase-locked loops (PLLs). The board contains the footprint for an ADF4002 synthesizer, an SMA connector for the reference input, power supplies, and an RF output. There is also a footprint for a loop filter and a VCO on board.
The ADF4002 frequency synthesizer is used to implement local oscillators in the up-conversion and down-conversion sections of wireless receivers and transmitters. It consists of a low-noise digital phase frequency detector (PFD), a precision charge pump, a programmable reference divider and programmable N divider. The 14-bit reference counter (R counter), allows selectable REFIN frequencies at the PFD input. A complete phase-locked loop (PLL) can be implemented if the synthesizer is used with an external loop filter and voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). In addition, by programming R & N to 1, the part can be used as a stand alone PFD and charge pump.
- ADF4002 Product Info - pricing, samples, datasheet
The first objective is to ensure that you have all of the items needed and to install the software tools so that you are ready to create and run the evaluation project.
Below is presented the list of required hardware items:
Below is presented the list of required software tools:
- Quartus II Web Edition design software v11.0
- Nios II EDS v11.0
- uC-Probe run-time monitoring tool, version 2.5
The Quartus II design software and the Nios II EDS is available via the Altera Complete Design Suite DVD or by downloading from the web.
The Micrium uC/Probe Trial version 2.5 is available via download from the web at http://micrium.com/tools/ucprobe/trial/. After installation add to the “Path” system variable the entry “%QUARTUS_ROOTDIR%\bin\“ on the third position in the list.
Extract the Lab Files
Create a folder called “ADIEvalBoardLab” on your PC and extract the ADF4002_EvalBoardLab.zip archive to this folder. Make sure that there are NO SPACES in the directory path. After extracting the archive the following folders should be present in the ADIEvalBoardLab folder: FPGA, Software, ucProbeInterface, NiosCpu.
Install the USB-Blaster Device Driver
After the Quartus II and Nios II software packages are installed, you can plug the BeMicro SDK board into your USB port. Your Windows PC will find the new hardware and try to install the driver.
Since Windows cannot locate the driver for the device the automatic installation will fail and the driver has to be installed manually. In the Device Manager right click on the USB-Blaster device and select Update Driver Software.
In the next dialog box select the option Browse my computer for driver software. A new dialog will open where it is possible to point to the driver’s location. Set the location to altera\<version number>\quartus\drivers\usb-blaster and press Next.
If Windows presents you with a message that the drivers have not passed Windows Logo testing, please click “Install this driver software anyway”. Upon installation completion a message will be displayed to inform that the installation is finished.
The next sections of this lab present all the steps needed to create a fully functional project that can be used for evaluating the operation of the ADI platform. It is possible to skip these steps and load into the FPGA an image that contains a fully functional system that can be used together with the uC-Probe interface for the ADI platform evalution. The first step of the quick evaluation process is to program the FPGA with the image provided in the lab files. Before the image can be loaded the Quartus II Web Edition tool or the Quartus II Programmer must be installed on your computer. To load the FPGA image run the program_fpga.bat batch file located in the ADIEvalBoardLab/FPGA folder. After the image was loaded the system must be reset. Now the FPGA contains a fully functional system and it is possible to skip directly to the DEMONSTRATION PROJECT USER INTERFACE section of this lab.
The lab is delivered together with a set of design files that are used to evaluate the ADI part. The FPGA image that must be loaded into the BeMicroSDK FPGA is included in the design files. This section presents the components included in the FPGA image and also the procedure to load the image into the FPGA.
The following components are implemented in the FPGA design:
|EPCS FLASH CONTROLLER||1800||2|
Load the FPGA Image
To load the FPGA image the following steps must be performed:
- Plug in the BeMicroSDK Stick into a USB port
- Start Altera Quartus Web edition and start the programmer by selecting the menu option Tools→Programmer
- Select Add File and select the file ADIEvalBoardLab/FPGA/SDP1_bemicro2.jic
- Check the Program/Configure box and press Start
After finishing, the image is permanently loaded to the configuration Flash and the system will start with a blinking LED after reset or power up.
NIOS II Software Design
This section presents the steps for developing a software application that will run on the BeMicroSDK system and will be used for controlling and monitoring the operation of the ADI evaluation board.
Create a new project using the NIOS II Software Build Tools for Eclipse
Launch the Nios II SBT from the Start → All Programs → Altera → Nios II EDS 11.0 → Nios II 11.0 Software Build Tools for Eclipse (SBT).
NOTE: Windows 7 users will need to right-click and select Run as administrator. Another method is to right-click and select Properties and click on the Compatibility tab and select the Run This Program As An Administrator checkbox, which will make this a permanent change.
1. Initialize Eclipse workspace
- When Eclipse first launches, a dialog box appears asking what directory it should use for its workspace. It is useful to have a separate Eclipse workspace associated with each hardware project that is created in SOPC Builder. Browse to the ADIEvalBoardLab directory and click Make New Folder to create a folder for the software project. Name the new folder “eclipse_workspace”. After selecting the workspace directory, click OK and Eclipse will launch and the workbench will appear in the Nios II perspective.
2. Create a new software project in the SBT
- Select File → New → Nios II Application and BSP from Template.
- Click the Browse button in the SOPC Information File Name dialog box.
- Select the uC.sopcinfo file located in the ADIEvalBoardLab/FPGA directory.
- Set the name of the Application project to “ADIEvalBoard”.
- Select the Blank Project template under Project template.
- Click the Finish button.
The tool will create two new software project directories. Each Nios II application has 2 project directories in the Eclipse workspace.
- The application software project itself - this where the application lives.
- The second is the Board Support Package (BSP) project associated with the main application software project. This project will build the system library drivers for the specific SOPC system. This project inherits the name from the main software project and appends “_bsp” to that.
Since you chose the blank project template, there are no source files in the application project directory at this time. The BSP contains a directory of software drivers as well as a system.h header file, system initialization source code and other software infrastructure.
Configure the Board Support Package
- Configure the board support package to specify the properties of this software system by using the BSP Editor tool. These properties include what interface should be used for stdio and stderr messages, the memory in which stack and heap should be allocated and whether an operating system or network stack should be included with this BSP.
- Right click on the ADIEvalBoard_bsp project and select Nios II → BSP Editor… from the right-click menu.
The software project provided in this lab does not make use of an operating system. All stdout, stdin and stderr messages will be directed to the jtag_uart.
- Select the Common settings view. In the Common settings view, change the following settings:
- Select the jtag_uart for stdin, stdout and stderr messages. Note that you have more than one choice.
- Select none for the sys_clk_timer and timestamp_timer.
- Select File → Save to save the board support package configuration to the settings.bsp file.
- Click the Generate button to update the BSP.
- When the generate has completed, select File → Exit to close the BSP Editor.
Configure BSP Project Build Properties
In addition to the board support package settings configured using the BSP Editor, there are other compilation settings managed by the Eclipse environment such as compiler flags and optimization level.
- Right click on the ADIEvalBoard_bsp software project and select Properties from the right-click menu.
- On the left-hand menu, select Nios II BSP Properties.
- During compilation, the code may have various levels of optimization which is a tradeoff between code size and performance. Change the Optimization level setting to Level 2
- Since our software does not make use of C++, uncheck Support C++.
- Check the Reduced device drivers option
- Check the Small C library option
- Press Apply and OK to regenerate the BSP and close the Properties window.
Add source code to the project
In Windows Explorer locate the project directory which contains a directory called Software. In Windows Explorer select all the files and directories from the Software folder and drag and drop them into the Eclipse software project ADIEvalBoard.
- Select all the files and folders and drag them over the ADIEvalBoard project in the SBT window and drop the files onto the project folder.
- A dialog box will appear to select the desired operation. Select the option Copy files and folders and press OK.
- This should cause the source files to be physically copied into the file system location of the software project directory and register these source files within the Eclipse workspace so that they appear in the Project Explorer file listing.
Configure Application Project Build Properties
Just as you configured the optimization level for the BSP project, you should set the optimization level for the application software project ADIEvalBoard as well.
- Right click on the ADIEvalBoard software project and select Properties from the right-click menu.
- On the left-hand menu, select the Nios II Application Properties tab
- Change the Optimization level setting to Level 2.
- Press Apply and OK to save the changes.
Define Application Include Directories
Application code can be conveniently organized in a directory structure. This section shows how to define these paths in the makefile.
- In the Eclipse environment double click on my_include_paths.in to open the file.
- Click the Ctrl and A keys to select all the text. Click the Ctrl and C keys to copy all the text.
- Double click on Makefile to open the file.
- If you see the message shown here about resources being out of sync, right click on the Makefile and select Refresh.
- Select the line APP_INCLUDE_DIRS :=
- Click the Ctrl and V keys to replace the selected line with the include paths.
- Click the Ctrl and S keys to save the Makefile.
Compile, Download and Run the Software Project
1. Build the Application and BSP Projects
- Right click the ADIEvalBoard_bsp software project and choose Build Project to build the board support package.
- When that build completes, right click the ADIEvalBoard application software project and choose Build Project to build the Nios II application.
These 2 steps will compile and build the associated board support package, then the actual application software project itself. The result of the compilation process will be an Executable and Linked Format (.elf) file for the application, the ADIEvalBoard.elf file.
2. Verify the Board Connection
The BeMicroSDK hardware is designed with a System ID peripheral. This peripheral is assigned a unique value based on when the hardware design was last modified in the SOPC Builder tool. SOPC Builder also places this information in the .sopcinfo hardware description file. The BSP is built based on the information in the .sopcinfo file.
- Select the ADIEvalBoard application software project.
- Select Run → Run Configurations…
- Select the Nios II Hardware configuration type.
- Press the New button to create a new configuration.
- Change the configuration name to BeMicroSDK and click Apply.
- On the Target Connection tab, press the Refresh Connections button. You may need to expand the window or scroll to the right to see this button.
- Select the jtag_uart as the Byte Stream Device for stdio.
- Check the Ignore mismatched system ID option.
- Check the Ignore mismatched system timestamp option.
3. Run the Software Project on the Target
To run the software project on the Nios II processor:
- Press the Run button in the Run Configurations window.
This will re-build the software project to create an up–to-date executable and then download the code into memory on the BeMicroSDK hardware. The debugger resets the Nios II processor, and it executes the downloaded code. Note that the code is verified in memory before it is executed.
The code size and start address might be different than the ones displayed in the above screenshot.
A notable challenge in embedded systems development is to overcome the lack of feedback that such systems typically provide. Many developers resort to blinking LEDs or instrumenting their code with printf() in order to determine whether or not their systems are running as expected. Micrium provides a unique tool named µC-Probe to assist these developers. With this tool, developers can effortlessly read and write the variables on a running embedded system. This section presents the steps required to install the Micrium uC-Probe software tool and to run the demonstration project for the ADI evaluation board. A description of the uC-Probe demonstration interface is provided.
Launch uC-Probe from the Start → All Programs → Micrium → uC-Probe.
Select uC-Probe options.
- Click on the uC-Probe icon on the top left portion of the screen.
- Click on the Options button to open the dialog box.
Set target board communication protocol as JTAG UART
- Click on the Communication tab icon on the top left portion of the dialog box
- Select the JTAG UART option.
Setup JTAG UART communication settings
- Select the JTAG-UART option from the Communication tab.
- Press the Open File button to select the JTAG Debug Information file (.jdi)
- Navigate to the ADIEvalBoardLab/FPGA folder and select the BeMicroSDK.jdi file. Press Open.
- Type the value 1 in the the Device Id window.
- Select uCProbe_uart(0) from the Instance Id pulldown menu.
- Press Apply and OK to exit the options menu. The embedded target has two UARTs. uC-Probe will be communicating with the uCProbe_uart.
Load and Run the Demonstration Project
- Click the Open option from the uC-Probe menu and select the file ADIEvalBoardLab/ucProbeInterface/ADF4002_Interface.wsp.
- Before opening the interface uC-Probe will ask for a symbols file that must be associated with the interface. If the lab was done according to the steps provided in the Quick Evaluation section, select the file ADIEvalBoardLab/ucProbeInterface/ADIEvalBoard.elf to be loaded as a symbol file, otherwise select the file ADIEvalBoardLab/FPGA/software/ADIEvalBoard/ADIEvalBoard.elf to be loaded as a symbol file.
- Run the demonstration project by pressing the Play button.
Demonstration Project User Interface
The following figure presents the uC-Probe interface that can be used for monitoring and controlling the operation of the EVAL-ADF4002SD1Z evaluation board.
Section A allows for the communication with the board to be activated / deactivated by toggling the ON/OFF switch. The Activity LED turns green when the communication is active. Before pressing the ON/OFF switch, make sure you select the desired Device Initialization Procedure. If the ON/OFF switch is set to ON and the Activity LED is BLACK it means that there is a communication problem with the board. See the Troubleshooting section for indications on how to fix the communication problems. The Error LED will indicate that the data received on the SDO pin is different than data sent. If the Function Latch or Initialization Latch is written, with a different MUXOUT value than 6, this LED will be activated. To reset the LED, the board must be deactivated and reactivated, case in which the Initialization procedure will set MUXOUT to 6.
Sections B to E allow for configuration of each latch on the ADF4002.
Section B allows for the configuration of the Reference Counter Latch. The LDP switch will toggle on or off the Lock Detect Precision bits. The TBS and ABW sliders will configure the Test Mode Bits and Anti Backlash Width bits respectively. The 14 Bit Reference Counter allows for the configuration of the counter. The last numerical display will display the resulting value in a decimal format. By toggling the Write switch in this section, a single write will be performed on the Reference Counter Latch with the programmed value.
Section C allows for the configuration of the N Counter Latch. The CPG switch toggles the CP Gain bit. The 13 Bit N Counter allows for the configuration of the N counter. The last numerical display in the row will display the resulting value in a decimal format. By toggling the Write switch, a single write will be performed on the N Counter Latch, with the value displayed.
Sections D and E have the same structure. The difference between these two latches is that when the Initialization Latch is programmed, there is an additional internal reset pulse applied to the R and N counters. This pulse ensures that the N counter is at a load point when the N counter data is latched, and the device will begin counting in close phase alignment. PD2 switch toggles the Power Down 2 pin. The CS2 and CS1 sliders will configure the Current Setting 2 and Current Setting 1 bits respectively. The Timer Counter Control can be configured through the TCC slider. Next, the switches configure the Fastlock Mode, Fastlock Enable, CP Three-State and Phase Detector Polarity bits. The MUX slider allows to select what is to be available on the MUXOUT pin. By default, at initialization, this has the value 6 set, in order to be able to use this pin as SDO. PD1 switch allows for setting the Power Down 1 bits. Lastly, the CR switch allows for resetting the R and N counters.
In case there is a communication problem with the board the follwing actions can be perfomed in order to try to fix the issues:
- Check that the evaluation board is powered.
- Check that the USB connection cable is properly connected to the device and to the computer and that the USB Blaster Device Driver driver is installed correctly. If the deriver is not correctly installed perform the steps described in the Getting Started → Install te USB-Blaster Device Driver section.
- In uC-Probe right-click on the System Browser window select Remove Symbols. A dialog box will open to select the symbols to remove. Press OK to remove the symbols.
- After removing the symbols a new set of symbols must be added in order for the interface to be functional. In uC-Probe right-click on the System Browser window select Add Symbols. A dialog box will open to select the symbols to be added. If the lab was done according to the steps provided in the Quick Evaluation section, select the file ADIEvalBoardLab/ucProbeInterface/ADIEvalBoard.elf to be loaded as a symbol file, otherwise select the file ADIEvalBoardLab/FPGA/software/ADIEvalBoard/ADIEvalBoard.elf to be loaded as a symbol file.
- If the communication problem persists even after performing the previous steps, restart the uC-Probe application and try to run the interface again.
- Example questions:
- AD-FMCOMMS3-EBZ Transmiter output waveform by wqzhang
- Using CLK_OUT from the AD9361 with the AD-FMCOMMS3-EBZ and ZC706 by email@example.com