This version (19 Aug 2021 07:12) was approved by erbe reyta.The Previously approved version (05 Mar 2021 04:09) is available.Diff

Solenoid Closed Loop Control Demo

The ADuCM3029_demo_cn0415 provides a solution for controlling and monitoring solenoid actuator current, using an EVAL-CN0415-ARDZ shield installed on an EVAL-ADICUP3029 base board. The user interface is implemented as a command line interface (CLI) through a serial UART connection. The project is created using CrossCore Embedded Studio and GNU ARM compiler.

General Description/Overview

The circuit can be divided into four parts for the purpose of analyzing interaction with the software project: The supply block, the sense block, the actuator block, and the overcurrent fault / reset block.

The supply block consists of DC-DC converters and protection circuits. This block does not interact with the software.

Overcurrent fault and Overcurrent Reset block, controlled by general-purpose input/output (GPIO) pins on ADICUP3029. If the solenoid current exceeds a resistor-programmed threshold, a comparator trips off the MOSFET gate driver and notifies software via a GPIO signal. The user can then re-enable the driver once the fault condition is removed.

The sense block, consisting of a 0.1Ω current sense resistor, sense amplifier, filtering, and 14-bit Analog to Digital converter (ADC). The ADC is connected to the ADICUP3029 via Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)

The voltage fed to the ADC with respect to current passing through the solenoid is given by the equation:

       VADC = Isolenoid * Rsense * 20       Isolenoid - Current through solenoid    
                                            Rsense    - Sense resistor (0.1Ω)  

The code output by the ADC is then calculated:

                                            VADC - Voltage on the ADC input
       CODE = (VADC * 2^14) / Vref          CODE - Code output by the ADC
                                            Vref - Reference voltage of the ADC

Here Vref is the reference voltage of the ADC and depends on the chosen supply. If the 12V on P1 was selected the supply voltage of the ADC will be 5V and the corresponding reference is 4.096V. If the ADC is powered from Arduino with 3.3V the reference will be 2.048V.

So the ADC code with respect to current sense will be:

       CODE = (Isolenoid * Rsense * 20 * 2^14) / Vref

The actuator block, consisting of a logic-level to MOSFET driver. The logic signal is driven by the ADICUP3029’s PWM peripheral, allowing the the effective voltage across the solenoid to be varied.

The software implements several functions with the sense and actuator blocks. PWM frequency and duty cycle can be controlled directly. This mode of operation would normally be combined with an outer feedback loop in a control system. One example would be a system in which the solenoid controls air pressure, that is in turn measured by a pressure sensor, which is then used to determine a new duty cycle value that brings the pressure closer to the desired setpoint.

A PID control loop allows the solenoid current to be accurately controlled, compensating for variations in supply voltage and coil resistance. This mode of operation allows for optimum drive current for 2-state solenoids, minimizing power dissipation. An additional function allows a higher initial “pull in” current to be applied for a short time, after which current drops back to a lower “hold” current.

 PID equation

Using the data gathered form the sense block the a PID controller is implemented that can be used to set a specific current value or duty cycle. To use the PID controller it must be first tuned with the right values of Kp, Ki and Kd. Various methods can be used for tunning. The proposed method, which is easy, but does not yield perfect results, is:

  1. Start increasing Kp constant while keeping Ki and Kd at 0. Increase Kp until the actuation time is reasonable and the current overshoot is within 5% of the wanted value.
  2. Start increasing Ki constant until the actuation time is reasonable and the current overshoot is within 5% of the wanted value.
  3. Pick Kd as 25% (1/4) of Ki.

A dither function allows a low-frequency AC signal to be superimposed, minimizing mechanical “stiction” in proportional solenoid applications.

Demo Requirements

The following is a list of items needed in order to replicate this demo.

  • Hardware
    • EVAL-ADICUP3029
    • EVAL-CN0415-ARDZ
    • Mirco USB to USB cable
    • PC or Laptop with a USB port
    • Solenoid actuator
    • 12V and 1A limited power supply
  • Software
    • CrossCore Embedded Studio (2.6.0 or higher)
    • ADuCM302x DFP (2.0.0 or higher)
    • ADICUP3029 BSP (1.0.0 or higher)
    • Serial Terminal Program (Required for running in release mode only)
      • Such as Putty or Tera Term

Setting up the Hardware

  1. Connect EVAL-CN0415-ARDZ board to the EVAL-ADICUP3029.  CN0415 docked on ADICUP3029
  2. Connect a micro-USB cable to P10 connector of the EVAL-ADICUP3029 and connect it to a computer.
  3. Connect a solenoid actuator to the P8 connector with the positive wire on pin 1 and negative wire on pin 2.
  4. Connect a 12V power supply to the P1 connector with the positive wire on pin 1 and negative wire on pin 2. CN0415 power up
  5. Turn on power supply.

Configuring the Software

The configuration parameters can be found in the config.h file.

vref - Reference voltage of the ADC set by supply method as described above. Set to 4.096 if the supply is the 12V on P1 or to 2.048 if supply is the Arduino 3.3V.

Supply voltage vref value
3.3V 2.048
12V 4.096
   /* Reference voltage of the ADC */
   float vref = 4.096;

Outputting Data

A serial terminal is an application that runs on a PC or laptop that is used to display data and interact with a connected device (including many of the Circuits from the Lab reference designs). The device's UART peripheral is most often connected to a UART to USB interface IC, which appears as a traditional COM port on the host PC/ laptop. (Traditionally, the device's UART port would have been connected to an RS-232 line driver / receiver and connected to the PC via a 9-pin or 25-pin serial port.) There are many open-source applications, and while there are many choices, typically we use one of the following:

Before continuing, please make sure you download and install one of the above programs.

There are several parameters on all serial terminal programs that must be setup properly in order for the PC and the connected device to communicate. Below are the common settings that must match on both the PC side and the connected UART device.

  1. COM Port - This is the physical connection made to your PC or Laptop, typically made through a USB cable but can be any serial communications cable. You can determine the COM port assigned to your device by visiting the device manager on your computer. Another method for identifying which COM port is associated with a USB-based device is to look at which COM ports are present before plugging in your device, then plug in your device, and look for a new COM port.
  2. Baud Rate - This is the speed at which data is being transferred from the connected device to your PC. These parameters must be the same on both devices or data will be corrupted. The default setting for most of the reference designs in 115200.
  3. Data Bits - The number of data bits per transfer. Typically UART transmits ASCII codes back to the serial port so by default this is almost always set to 8-Bits.
  4. Stop Bits - The number of “stop” conditions per transmission. This usually set to 1, but can be set to 2 for redundancy.
  5. Parity - Is a way to check for errors during the UART transmission. Unless otherwise specified, set parity to “none”.
  6. Flow Control - Is a way to ensure that data lose between fast and slow devices on the same UART bus are not lost during transmission. This is typically not implemented in a simple system, and unless otherwise specified, set to “none”.

In many instances there are other options that each of the different serial terminal applications provide, such as local line echo or local line editing, and features like this can be turned on or off depending on your preferences. This setup guide will not go over all the options of each tool, but just the minor features that will make it easier to read back data from the connected devices.

Example setup using Putty

  1. Plug in your connected device using a USB cable or other serial cable.
  2. Wait for the device driver of the connected device to install on your PC or Laptop.
  3. Open your device manager, and find out which COM port was assigned to your device.
  4. Open up your serial terminal program (Putty for this example)
  5. Click on the serial configuration tab or window, and input the settings to match the requirements of your connected device. The default baud rate for most of the reference designs is 115200. Make sure that you use the correct baud rate for your application.
  6. Ensure you click on the checkboxes for Implicit CR in every LF and Implicit LF in every CF.
  7. Ensure that local echo and line editing are enabled, so that you can see what you type and are able to correct mistakes. (Some devices may echo typed characters - if so, you will see each typed character twice. If this happens, turn off local echo.)
  8. Click on the open button, and as long as your connected device and serial terminal program are setup the same, than you should see data displaying.
Hint: If you see nothing in the serial terminal, try hitting the reset button on the embedded development board.

Available commands

Typing help or h after initial calibration sequence will display the list of commands and their short versions. Below is the short command list:

Type Command Description
System h Display available commands
rst Reset controller, parameters and faults
stts Show application status and parameters
clb Run calibration sequence
Control f
ex: f 5000<enter>
(set frequency to 5kHz)
Set frequency to the specified value
<freq> = value of the new frequency
1Hz to 4MHz frequency is possible.
ex: d 5234<enter>
(set duty cycle to 52.34%.)
Set duty cycle to the specified value
<duty> = value of the new duty cycle
The duty cycle is from 0 representing 0% and 10000 representing 100%.
r Read and display the value of the ADC
ad Activate PWM dither functionality
rd Deactivate PWM dither functionality
ex: df 50<enter>
(set dither freq. to 50Hz)
Set dither frequency to the given value
<freq> = value of the new frequency
Recommended maximum value of the PWM frequency divided by 10.
ex: da 200<enter>
(set dither amplitude to 2%)
Set dither amplitude
<duty> = value of the amplitude in duty cycle variation
Any value between 0 and 10000, same as duty cycle.
Recommended to be lower than the lowest value needed
for the duty cycle to be 0 or full scale.
PID ap Activate PID controller
rp Deactivate PID controller
ex: kp 5000.0<enter>
(set kp to 5000)
Set PID Kp constant
<kp> = value of the new Kp constant
From zero to maximum number represented by a 32 bit float value.
ex: ki 1.5<enter>
(set ki to 1.5)
Set PID Ki constant
<ki> = value of the new Ki constant
From zero to maximum number represented by a 32 bit float value.
ex: kd 0.25<enter>
(set kd to 0.25)
Set PID Kd constant
<kd> = value of the new Kd constant
From zero to maximum number represented by a 32 bit float value.
ex: spf 100<enter>
(set sample freq. to 100Hz)
Set PID sampling frequency
<freq> = value of the new frequency
Recommended to be at most equal with the dither frequency.
ex: sps 2500<enter>
(setpoint to 25%)
Set PID set point(hold value)
<sp> = new hold value in A or 0.01%(duty cycle)
From 0 to 1 amperes or from 1 to 10000 as duty cycle.
Digital dson Set digital solenoid high
dsof Set digital solenoid low
Proportional pss
ex: pss 2500<enter>
(setpoint to 25%)
Set and activate proportional solenoid
<val> = value of the current or duty cycle
from 0 to 1 amperes.

 Terminal example

Obtaining the Software

There are two basic ways to program the ADICUP3029 with the software for the CN0415.

  1. Dragging and Dropping the .Hex to the Daplink drive
  2. Building, Compiling, and Debugging using CCES

Using the drag and drop method, the software is going to be a version that Analog Devices creates for testing and evaluation purposes. This is the EASIEST way to get started with the reference design

Importing the project into CrossCore is going to allow you to change parameters and customize the software to fit your needs, but will be a bit more advanced and will require you to download the CrossCore toolchain.

The software for the ADuCM3029_demo_cn0415 can be found here:

Prebuilt CN0415 Hex File

Complete CN0415 Source Files

How to use the Tools

The official tool we promote for use with the EVAL-ADICUP3029 is CrossCore Embedded Studio. For more information on downloading the tools and a quick start guide on how to use the tool basics, please check out the Tools Overview page.


For more detailed instructions on importing this application/demo example into the CrossCore Embedded Studios tools, please view our How to import existing projects into your workspace section.


For more detailed instructions on importing this application/demo example into the CrossCore Embedded Studios tools, please view our How to configure the debug session section.

Project Structure

The program is composed of three main parts:

  1. Board setup, with initialization;
  2. Calibration;
  3. Main process.

 Software main flow chart

The boards initial parameters can be given in the software in the main function or the FLASH_INIT_PARAMETERS define in the config.h file can be uncommented and the relevant parameters can be changed in program from the command line and the program will retain these parameters in the non-volatile memory. The program initializes timers and UART, SPI, GPIO and FLASH controllers.

 Software board setup flow chart

Calibration is done to minimize full scale error. It sets control signal to logic “1” and measures the current, then prompts the user for a manual measurement with a precision tool. The difference between these two measurements is stored and used in calculating future values from ADC codes.

 Software calibration flow chart

The main process is the infinite loop in which the program implements CLI, PID and dither functionality. The UART is used for the CLI and three different timers implement the PWM signal, the PID periodic calculation and the dither functionality.

 Software process flow chart

End of Document

resources/eval/user-guides/eval-adicup3029/reference_designs/demo_cn0415.txt · Last modified: 19 Aug 2021 07:12 by erbe reyta