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This version (18 Feb 2013 15:03) was approved by larsc.The Previously approved version (16 Nov 2012 12:41) is available.Diff

AD5064 IIO Quad-Channel DAC Linux Driver

Supported Devices

Reference Circuits

Evaluation Boards

Description

This is a Linux industrial I/O (IIO) subsystem driver, targeting multi-channel serial interface DACs. The industrial I/O subsystem provides a unified framework for drivers for many different types of converters and sensors using a number of different physical interfaces (i2c, spi, etc). See IIO for more information.

Source Code

Status

Source Mainlined?
git git

Files

Function File
driver drivers/iio/dac/ad5064.c

Example platform device initialization

Specifying reference voltage via the regulator framework

Below example specifies a 2.5 Volt reference for the SPI device 3 on SPI-Bus 0. (spi0.3) In this example all 4 reference voltage are supplied by the same regulator.

#if defined(CONFIG_REGULATOR_FIXED_VOLTAGE) || defined(CONFIG_REGULATOR_FIXED_VOLTAGE_MODULE)
static struct regulator_consumer_supply ad5064_consumer_supplies[] = {
	REGULATOR_SUPPLY("vrefA", "spi0.3"),
	REGULATOR_SUPPLY("vrefB", "spi0.3"),
	REGULATOR_SUPPLY("vrefC", "spi0.3"),
	REGULATOR_SUPPLY("vrefD", "spi0.3"),
};
 
static struct regulator_init_data stamp_avdd_reg_init_data = {
	.constraints	= {
		.name	= "2V5",
		.valid_ops_mask = REGULATOR_CHANGE_STATUS,
	},
	.consumer_supplies = ad5624_consumer_supplies,
	.num_consumer_supplies = ARRAY_SIZE(ad5624_consumer_supplies),
};
 
static struct fixed_voltage_config stamp_vdd_pdata = {
	.supply_name	= "board-2V5",
	.microvolts	= 2500000,
	.gpio		= -EINVAL,
	.enabled_at_boot = 0,
	.init_data	= &stamp_avdd_reg_init_data,
};
static struct platform_device brd_voltage_regulator = {
	.name		= "reg-fixed-voltage",
	.id		= -1,
	.num_resources	= 0,
	.dev		= {
		.platform_data	= &stamp_vdd_pdata,
	},
};
#endif
static struct platform_device *board_devices[] __initdata = {
#if defined(CONFIG_REGULATOR_FIXED_VOLTAGE) || defined(CONFIG_REGULATOR_FIXED_VOLTAGE_MODULE)
	&brd_voltage_regulator
#endif
};
static int __init board_init(void)
{
	[--snip--]
 
	platform_add_devices(board_devices, ARRAY_SIZE(board_devices));
 
	[--snip--]
 
	return 0;
}
arch_initcall(board_init);

Declaring SPI slave devices

Unlike PCI or USB devices, SPI devices are not enumerated at the hardware level. Instead, the software must know which devices are connected on each SPI bus segment, and what slave selects these devices are using. For this reason, the kernel code must instantiate SPI devices explicitly. The most common method is to declare the SPI devices by bus number.

This method is appropriate when the SPI bus is a system bus, as in many embedded systems, wherein each SPI bus has a number which is known in advance. It is thus possible to pre-declare the SPI devices that inhabit this bus. This is done with an array of struct spi_board_info, which is registered by calling spi_register_board_info().

For more information see: Documentation/spi/spi-summary

21 Oct 2010 16:10 · Michael Hennerich

Depending on the converter IC used, you may need to set the modalias accordingly, matching your part name. It may also required to adjust max_speed_hz. Please consult the datasheet, for maximum spi clock supported by the device in question.

static struct spi_board_info board_spi_board_info[] __initdata = {
#if defined(CONFIG_AD5064_SPI) || \
 	defined(CONFIG_AD5064_SPI_MODULE)
	{
		/* the modalias must be the same as spi device driver name */
		.modalias = "ad5064", /* Name of spi_driver for this device */
		.max_speed_hz = 1000000,     /* max spi clock (SCK) speed in HZ */
		.bus_num = 0, /* Framework bus number */
		.chip_select = 3, /* Framework chip select */
		.mode = SPI_MODE_1,
	},
#endif
};
static int __init board_init(void)
{
	[--snip--]
 
	spi_register_board_info(board_spi_board_info, ARRAY_SIZE(board_spi_board_info));
 
	[--snip--]
 
	return 0;
}
arch_initcall(board_init);

Adding Linux driver support

Configure kernel with “make menuconfig” (alternatively use “make xconfig” or “make qconfig”)

The AD5064 Driver depends on CONFIG_SPI

Linux Kernel Configuration
    Device Drivers  --->
        ...
        <*>     Industrial I/O support --->
            --- Industrial I/O support
            ...
            Digital to analog converters  ---> 
                ...
                <*>  Analog Devices AD5064 and similar multi-channel DAC driver
                ...
            ...
        ...

Hardware configuration

Driver testing

Each and every IIO device, typically a hardware chip, has a device folder under /sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:deviceX. Where X is the IIO index of the device. Under every of these directory folders reside a set of files, depending on the characteristics and features of the hardware device in question. These files are consistently generalized and documented in the IIO ABI documentation. In order to determine which IIO deviceX corresponds to which hardware device, the user can read the name file /sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:deviceX/name. In case the sequence in which the iio device drivers are loaded/registered is constant, the numbering is constant and may be known in advance.

02 Mar 2011 15:16 · Michael Hennerich

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/> cd /sys/bus/iio/devices/
root:/sys/bus/iio/devices> ls
iio:device0

root:/sys/bus/iio/devices> cd iio:device0

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> ls -l
-r--r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 dev
-r--r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 name
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage0_powerdown
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage0_powerdown_mode
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage0_raw
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage0_scale
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage1_powerdown
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage1_powerdown_mode
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage1_raw
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage1_scale
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage2_powerdown
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage2_powerdown_mode
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage2_raw
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage2_scale
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage3_powerdown
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage3_powerdown_mode
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage3_raw
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage3_scale
-r--r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  1 03:29 out_voltage_powerdown_mode_available
drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root             0 Jan  3 16:50 power
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root             0 Jan  3 16:50 subsystem -> ../../../../../bus/iio
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          4096 Jan  3 16:50 uevent

The number of channels depends on the chip model.

Show device name

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat name
ad5064

Show scale

Description:
/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:deviceX/out_voltageY_scale

scale to be applied to out_voltage0_raw in order to obtain the measured voltage in millivolts.

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat out_voltage0_scale
0.038140

Set channel Y output voltage

Description:
/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:deviceX/out_voltageY_raw

Raw (unscaled, no bias etc.) output voltage for channel Y.

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> echo 10000 > out_voltage0_raw

U = out_voltage0_raw * out_voltage0_scale = 10000 * 0,038140 mV = 381,14 mV

List available power down modes

/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:deviceX/out_voltage_powerdown_mode_available

Description:
Lists all available output power down modes.

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat out_voltage_powerdown_mode_available
1kohm_to_gnd 100kohm_to_gnd three_state

Set power down mode

/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:deviceX/out_voltage_powerdown_mode

Description:
Specifies the output power down mode. DAC output stage is disconnected from the amplifier and

1kohm_to_gnd connected to ground via an 1kOhm resistor
100kohm_to_gnd connected to ground via an 100kOhm resistor
three_state left floating

For a list of available output power down options read out_voltage_powerdown_mode_available.

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> echo three_state > out_voltage_powerdown_mode
root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat out_voltage_powerdown_mode
three_state

Enable power down mode on output Y

/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:deviceX/out_voltageY_powerdown

Description:
Writing 1 causes output Y to enter the power down mode specified by the corresponding out_voltageY_powerdown_mode. Clearing returns to normal operation.

This specifies any shell prompt running on the target

root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> echo 1 > out_voltage0_powerdown
root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat out_voltage0_powerdown
1
root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> echo 0 > out_voltage0_powerdown
root:/sys/devices/platform/bfin-spi.0/spi0.3/iio:device0> cat out_voltage0_powerdown
0

PMOD-DA4

The PMOD-DA4 is a PMOD board made by Digilent Inc. which features the AD5628

The following example shows how to connect the PMOD-DA4 to a Blackfin BF537-STAMP board.

Hardware configuration

BF537-STAMP (P9) SPI header PMOD-DA4
PIN Function PIN Function
2 (+3.3V) 6 VDD
5 SPI_MOSI 2 DIN
8 SPI_SCK 4 SCLK
10 SPI_SS 1 SYNC
20 GND 5 GND

More Information